A federal tax lien is when the government has the legal right to a taxpayer's property when the taxpayer does not pay or ignores paying his/her tax debt.
A tax lien is incurred when:
the IRS assesses tax liability,
the IRS sends the taxpayer a letter/bill explaining how much is owed and demanding payment,
the taxpayer ignores or decides to not pay the debt in full and on time.
The tax lien lien is against the taxpayer and all of their assets including those assets acquired in the future.
The easiest way to get rid of a tax lien is to simply pay the debt in full. Within 30 days after the debts is paid, the IRS will remove the lien. The IRS can also remove the tax lien if it was filed in error, if an installment agreement is set up, or if an offer in compromise is successful.